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    In the 1960s and 1970s, classic social psychological studies were conducted thatprovided evidence that even normal, decent people can engage in acts of extreme crueltywhen instructed to do so by others. However, in an essay published November 20 in theopen access journal PLOS Biology, Professors Alex Haslam and Stephen Reicher revisitthese studies' conclusions and explain how awful acts involve not just obedience, butenthusiasm too---challenging the long-held belief that human beings are "programmed"for conformity.
    This belief can be traced back to two landmark empirical research ( 实证研究 )programs conducted by Stanley Milgram and Philip Zimbardo in the 1960s and early1970s. Milgram's "Obedience to Authority" research is widely believed to show thatpeople blindly conform to the instructions of an authority figure, and Zimbardo'sStanfordPrison Experiment (SPE) is commonly understood to show that people will take onabusive roles uncritically.
However, Professor Haslam, from the University of Queensland, argues that tyrannydoes not result from blind conformity to rules and roles. Rather, it is a creative act offollowership, resulting from identifying with authorities who represent vicious (恶意的 )acts as virtuous ( 善良的 ) .
    "Decent people participate in horrific acts not because they become passive,mindless functionaries (公职人员 ) who do not know what they are doing, but ratherbecause they come to believe--typically under the influence of those in authority--thatwhat they are doing is right," Professor Haslam explained.
    Professor Reicher, of the University of St Andrews, added that it is not that theywere blind to the evil acts they were committing, but rather that they knew what they weredoing, and believed it to be right.
    These conclusions were partly informed by Professors Haslam and Reicher's ownprison experiment, conducted in 2002 in collaboration with the BBC. The study generatedthree findings. First, participants did not conform automatically to their assigned role;second, they only acted in terms of group membership to the extent that they identifiedwith the group; and finally, group identity did not mean that people simply accepted theirassigned position--it also empowered them to resist it.
    Although Zimbardo and Milgram's findings remain highly influential,professor Haslam argues that their conclusions do not hold up well under close empirical scrutiny.
   Professor Reicher concludes that tyranny does not flourish because offendersare helpless and ignorant; it flourishes because they are convinced that they are doingsomething worthy.
1.[单选题]Which is wrong about the three findings of the experiment?
  • A.Participants did not conform to their assigned role mindlessly.
  • B.Participants only act in groups to prove that they are a team.
  • C.Group identity empowers participants to reject their roles.
  • D.Group identity can be achieved when participants accomplish a task.
  • 解题思路:根据题干中的three findings可定位到原文第六段。对比原文,第一个发现说参与者并非机械地顺从他们被分配的角色,故A选项说法正确;第二个发现说他们仅以小组身份行动,认同自己属于小组成员,B选项正确;第三个发现说小组身份并非意味着他们仅仅接受所分配的职位——还允许他们排斥分配,C选项正确,只有D选项并未提到,故选D。
2.[单选题]What's Professor Haslam's finding about tyranny?
  • A.It comes right from the evil deep in the heart of humans.
  • B.It's a new way of followership to identify with authorities.
  • C.It can be found mostly in war-troubled countries.
  • D.It results from blind conformity to rules and roles.
  • 解题思路:根据题干中的Haslam’s finding abouttyranny可定位到原文第三段第二句,该句提到Haslam教授发现暴虐是一种创造性的追随行为,这种行为源自对把恶行描绘为善举的权威人物的认同,A、C选项原文未提及,D选项说法错误,只有B选项符合,故选B。
3.[单选题]What does the author mean by saying "human beings are 'programmed'for conformity" (Line 6, Para. I)?
  • A.Human beings are designed to defy the instructions of others.
  • B.Human beings are forced to listen to the advice of others.
  • C.Human beings are ordered to take advice of others.
  • D.Human beings are made to be obedient to others.
  • 解题思路:根据题干中的human beings are“programmed”for conformity可定位到原文第一段最后一句。理解该句的关键是理解conformity一词,根据做题经验,可在该词上下文寻找相关信息加以理解。第一段第一句提到…when instructed to doso by others(……当有人指导的时候)和how awful acts involve not iust obedience(可怕的行为不仅因为服从),可判断该段讲述的是“人性顺从”,由此可推断conformity是“顺从”的意思,引号中句子的意思就是“人类‘不由自主地’服从”,故选D。
4.[单选题]How do Professors Alex Haslam and Stephen Reicher explain human's cruelty?
  • A.Human beings are programmed for conformity.
  • B.Even normal, decent people can engage in cruel activities.
  • C.Not only conformity, but zeal contributes to cruelty.
  • D.People are convincible when instructed by authorities.
  • 解题思路:根据题干中的Alex Haslam and Stephen Reicher explain human’s cruelty可定位到原文第一段最后一句,该句提到两位教授重新讨论了这些研究然后解释了人们参与残忍行动的原因,指出这种行为不仅因为服从,还源于热情。C选项中conformity与obedience同义,zeal和enthusiasm同义,故选C。
5.[单选题]How does Professor Haslam think Milgram and Zimbardo's findings?
  • A.They are classic studies and should not be doubted.
  • B.They cannot stand a strict test.
  • C.They need to follow the current trend.
  • D.They have to be revised and testified
  • 解题思路:根据题干可定位到原文倒数第二段,该段提到,虽然津巴多和米尔格拉姆的研究仍具有很大影响力,哈斯拉姆教授认为他们的结论禁不住严格的实证审查,holdupwell是“禁得住”的意思,与stand同义,scrutiny与test同义,都是“检查”的意思,故选B。
  • 参考答案:D,B,D,C,B